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Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) is widely used as electro-optic modulator and Q-switch for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as modulator for fiber optics, etc. The transverse modulation is mostly employed for LiNbO3 crystal.

Also LiNbO3 Crystal is widely used as frequency doublers for wavelength >1um and optical parametric oscillators (OPO) pumped at 1064 nm as well as quasi-phase-matched (QPM) devices.


Large Electro-Optic (E-O) coefficients

Large Acousto-Optic (A-O) coefficients


Frequency doublers

Optical parametric oscillators (OPO)

Quasi-phase-matched (QPM) device

Q-switches and modulator


Crystal Structure

Trigonal, space group R3c

Cell Parameters

a = 0.515Å, c = 13.863Å, Z = 6Å

Melting Point


Curie Point


Mohs Hardness




Absorption Coefficient

~ 0.1%/cm @ 1064 nm


insoluble in water

Relative Dielectric Constant

eT11/e0: 85, eT33/e0: 29.5

Thermal Expansion Coefficients( @ 25oC)

||a, 2.0 x 10-6/K, ||c, 2.2 x 10-6/K

Thermal Conductivity

38 W /m /K @ 25oC

Transparency Range

420-5200 nm

Optical Homogeneity

~5 x 10-5 /cm

Sellmeier Equations( λ in um)

no2 = 4.9048+0.11768/(λ2 - 0.04750) - 0.027169λ2
ne2 = 4.5820+0.099169/(λ2- 0.04443) - 0.021950λ2

NLO Coefficients

d33 = 34.4 pm/V
d31 = d15 = 5.95 pm/V
d22 = 3.07 pm/V

Electro-Optic Coefficients

gT33 = 32 pm/V, gS33 = 31 pm/V
gT31 = 10 pm/V, gS31 = 8.6 pm/V
gT22 = 6.8 pm/V, gS22 = 3.4 pm/V

Half-Wave Voltage, DC

Electrical field ||z, light z 3.03 KV
Electrical field ||x or y, light || z 4.02 KV

Efficiency NLO Coefficients

deff=5.7pm/V or~14.6xd36(KDP) for frequency doubling 1300 nm;
deff=5.3pm/V or~13.6xd36(KDP) for OPO pumped at 1300nm;
deff=17.6pm/V or~45xd36(KDP) for quasi-phase-matched structure;

Damage Threshold

200 MW/cm2


DELN can provide LiNbO3 products used for many applications, such as E-O modulator, waveguide substrate, frequency doubling, SAW wafer application etc.


Dimension Tolerance


Angle Tolerance


Surface Flatness


Wavefront Distortion



<20 arc seconds


<5 arc minutes

Surface Quality

20/10 Scratch and Dig

Clear Aperture



AR coating Upon customer’s request


Magnesium Oxide Doped Lithium Niobate Crystal



Compared with LiNbO3 crystal, MgO:LiNbO3 crystal exhibits its particular advantages for NCPM frequency doubling (SHG) of Nd:Lasers, mixing (SFG) and optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). MgO:LiNbO3 is also a good crystal for optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and amplifiers (OPAs), quasi-phase-matched doublers and integrated waveguide.


MgO:LiNbO3 has similar effective nonlinear coefficients to pure LiNbO3, Its Sellmeier equations (for MgO dopant 7 mol%) are:


no2=4.8762+0.11554/(λ2 - 0.04674) - 0.033119λ2

ne2=4.5469+0.094779/(λ2 - 0.04439) - 0.026721λ2



Lithium Tantalate Crystal



LiTaO3 crystal is also widely used as electro-optic modulator, with NLO and E-O properties similar to those of LiNbO3 but higher damage threshold (>500 MW/cm for ns pulsed).



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